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Isaiah Chapter 1: My Study Notes for Line-by-Line

So excited to get back to Wednesday night's CPBC Line-by-Line study. Excited to learn and hear everyone's thoughts on this challenging book. Very grateful that Pastor Patrick chose this book. I always wanted to go deep on this and now I have the opportunity.

Isaiah 1

The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, (Amoz Hebrew: אָמוֹץ‎, Modern: ʼAmōs , also known as Amotz, was the father of the prophet Isaiah, spoke of in Isaiah 1:1; 2:1 and 13:1, and in II Kings 19:2, 20; 20:1. It means: Strong; carried; brave. Nothing else is known for certain about him.) which he saw concerning Judah (The tribe of Judah settled in the region south of Jerusalem and in time became the most powerful and most important tribe. Not only did it produce the great kings David and Solomon but also, it was prophesied, the Messiah, Jesus, would come from among its members.) and Jerusalem ( The Bible, which mentions Jerusalem more than any other place (about 800 times), states, “the Lord has chosen Jerusalem and will dwell there forever” (Psalm 132:13-14) and expressly calls upon God's people to never forget Jerusalem and to “exalt it above their chief joy” (Psalm 137:5-6). in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah. (The reigns of four kings of Judah: Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah. His ministry began in about 740 B.C., the year Uzziah died, and perhaps continued some 40 to 50 years, through and beyond the reign of Hezekiah. By this time, Israel had been in the Promised Land for almost 700 years. For their first 400 years in Canaan, judges ruled Israel. These were spiritual, military, and political leaders whom God raised up as the occasion demanded. Then, for about 120 years, three kings reigned over all of Israel: Saul, David, and Solomon. But in 917 B.C. Israel had a civil war and remained divided into two nations, Israel (to the north) and Judah (to the south) up until the time of Isaiah.)

2 Hear, O heavens, and give ear, O earth; for the Lord has spoken: (quoted from Deuteronomy 32:1) “Children have I reared and brought up, but they have rebelled against me. (God is talking about the inequity of the people in Judah) – (Iniquity in Hebrew is “Avon” and means “to bend, twist, distort” so iniquities are bending, twisting, or distorting of the law of God's Word to different degrees worthy of punishment. Iniquity is a violation of the right or duty that mankind is under obligation to do.) 3 The ox knows its owner, and the donkey its master's crib, (crib refers to the troughs which are filled by the shepherd of the flock, in this case, God's protection of Judah and in the future, Jesus Christ) but Israel does not know, (The whole nation, Judah as well as Israel) my people do not understand.”(a reference to Exodus 19:5 – Now, therefore, if you will indeed obey my voice and keep my covenant, you shall be my treasured possession among all peoples, for all the earth is mine

4 Ah, sinful nation, (Israelites) a people laden with iniquity, (see v.2 notes for iniquity) offspring of evildoers, children who deal corruptly! (Idolatry and greed were ramped in their lives) They have forsaken the Lord, (Israel knew God, knew His laws, and chose to ignore, twist, or bend them(inequity). they have despised the Holy One of Israel, (Israel loved the flesh more than they did God) they are utterly estranged. (Complete but temporary separation, we must always remember that God made a Covenant with Israel and covenants are, by definition, forever. They are cut off from God until He lets them return)

5 Why will you still be struck down? Why will you continue to rebel? The whole head is sick, and the whole heart faint. (Spurgeon wrote: It was of no use chastising these people. They only sinned the worse for all the afflictions that were sent, and when the fire of affliction doth not melt the iron heart, what can do it?) 6 From the sole of the foot even to the head, there is no soundness in it, but bruises and sores and raw wounds; they are not pressed out or bound up or softened with oil. (This is not referring, as it is commonly thought, to their sins, but to the universality of their punishment. However, sin, the moral disease of the head and the hear doubles its own punishment suffered both here and in eternity)

7 Your country lies desolate; your cities are burned with fire; (The cities' fate was compared to Sodom and Gomorrah) in your very presence foreigners devour your land; it is desolate, as overthrown by foreigners. (a reference to the ravages of the Syrians: 2 Chronicles 24:24 ) 8 And the daughter of Zion is left (refers to the city (Psalms 9:14 ), of Jerusalem and its inhabitants ( 2 Kings 19:21 ): "daughter" (feminine, singular being used as a neuter collective noun), equivalent to sons ( Isaiah 12:6 ) like a booth in a vineyard, like a lodge in a cucumber field, like a besieged city.

9 If the Lord of hosts had not left us a few survivors, we should have been like Sodom, and become like Gomorrah. (See v.7. Despite knowing what happened to these two cities, the people continued to sin, just like we foolishly do today.)

10 Hear the word of the Lord, you rulers of Sodom! (Transgressors of the Law, spiritually bankrupt people) Give ear to the teaching of our God, you people of Gomorrah! (Sinners and the lawless should listen to this) 11 “What to me is the multitude of your sacrifices? says the Lord; (God is rhetorically asking why He should care about their hollow sacrifices when in their hearts, they truly desire to sin) I have had enough of burnt offerings of rams and the fat of well-fed beasts; I do not delight in the blood of bulls, or of lambs, or of goats. (God desires a repentant heart with a sacrifice. Contrition leads to grace, not tradition and ritual)

12 “When you come to appear before me, who has required of you this trampling of my courts? (Who asked you to trespass and dirty up my house when you are willfully sinning) 13 Bring no more vain offerings; incense is an abomination to me. (If you are a hypocrite, if your heart is not right with God, you can multiply your Christianize talk, your church-goings, and your sacraments; but all these are only a provoking of God to anger. There is nothing in it all that he could possibly accept; he cannot endure it.)

New moon and Sabbath and the calling of convocations— (observed as festivals, Numbers 10:10, Numbers 28:11, Numbers 28:14: with sacrifices and blowing of silver trumpets.) I cannot endure iniquity and solemn assembly. 14 Your new moons and your appointed feasts my soul hates; they have become a burden to me; I am weary of bearing them. (God again expresses His exasperation at Israel and their unrepentant ways, even as they ‘play temple’ really well) 15 When you spread out your hands, I will hide my eyes from you; even though you make many prayers, I will not listen; your hands are full of blood. (These “religious acts” are worthless when completed fraudulently. Israel was simply going through the motions, trying to fool themselves, each other, and God) 16 Wash yourselves; make yourselves clean; remove the evil of your deeds from before my eyes; cease to do evil, 17 learn to do good; seek justice, correct oppression; bring justice to the fatherless, plead the widow's cause.

18 “Come now, let us reason together, says the Lord: (even in their state of spiritual expiration, God allows them a chance to snap out of their sin-loving state of mind) though your sins are like scarlet, (the color of Christ’s robe when He bears our sins) they shall be as white as snow; though they are red like crimson, they shall become like wool. (Restored to its original, undyed whiteness) 19 If you are willing and obedient, you shall eat the good of the land; 20 but if you refuse and rebel, you shall be eaten by the sword; for the mouth of the Lord has spoken.” (Isaias’s entire prophesy rests on the law)

21 How the faithful city has become a whore, (Jerusalem, the one-time spiritual capital of the world is now unfaithful to their first love and has become a harlot, morally bankrupt: a reference to Ezekiel 16:28-35) she who was full of justice! (God has removed the justice (righteousness) and protection (justice) they once enjoyed) Righteousness lodged in her, but now murderers.

22 Your silver (valuable) has become dross, (something regarded as worthless; rubbish) your best wine mixed with water. (Watered down laws of God to fit man's purpose) 23 Your princes are rebels and companions of thieves. Everyone loves a bribe and runs after gifts. (Israel is corrupted and living in all types of flagrant sin) They do not bring justice to the fatherless, and the widow's cause does not come to them. (a direct violation of Duet. 25, an example of the watered-down wine from v.22)

24 Therefore the Lord declares, the Lord of hosts, the Mighty One of Israel: (This is a show of might, God introduces Himself to Judah with title and rank. Lord of Host would invoke the image of a general, a commander of heaven’s armies. The title Mighty One of Israel shows his dominance over everything, all of creation)

“Ah, I will get relief from my enemies and avenge myself on my foes. 25 I will turn my hand against you and will smelt away your dross as with lye and remove all your alloy. (Judah has made themselves God’s enemy and enemies are judged and often punished) 26 And I will restore your judges as at the first, and your counselors as at the beginning. Afterward you shall be called the city of righteousness, the faithful city.” (Purification is coming)

27 Zion shall be redeemed by justice, and those in her who repent, by righteousness. (God’s justice is always done according to His laws, not man’s laws and doctrines. Even still, as we will see in the words of Jesus, within justice, repentance is the beginning of righteousness) 28 But rebels and sinners shall be broken together, and those who forsake the Lord shall be consumed. (Forsake -Azab: to be remote, absent, departed)

29 For they shall be ashamed of the oaks that you desired; and you shall blush for the gardens that you have chosen. (Judah has chosen fake religious acts over faithful living) 30 For you shall be like an oak whose leaf withers, and like a garden without water. (All false teachers and doctrines will eventually fall away, as will their followers because they are rooted in man’s words, not Gods) 31 And the strong shall become tinder and his work a spark, and both of them shall burn together, with none to quench them. (Punishment is forever)

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